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南无阿弥陀佛!善导大师弥陀化身,创净土宗

南无者,即是归命,亦是发愿回向之义;言阿弥陀佛者,即是其行。以斯义故,必得往生

 
 
 

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农村出生,大专学历,从事农业科研近30年。学佛道医儒武等圣贤教育、科学。2003年提出“扬弃生”,认为它是真性化身的心物普遍联系和永恒运动的总方式,是“解放思想、实事求是、与时俱进”的精髓,是贯穿马列主义、毛泽东思想、邓小平理论、“三个代表”重要思想和科学发展观的红线。实践“全武术”,达如意自发动功。

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日期:2017 年 1 月 9 日   作者:净行居士   栏目:弘愿园地  点击量:79

 

       Concentration and Effortin Amitabha-Recitation

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               By Householder Jingxing/净行居士

 

It’s been over a month since my return from Vancouver,Canada, and my meeting with Master Jingzong, Householder Jingpu, and theVancouver Amitabha-Recitation Association. I still find myself gleaning lessonsand insights from the experience. One of these lessons concerns the nature ofpractice in the pristine tradition of Master Shandao, founder of Buddhism’sPure Land school.

加拿大温哥华之行,与净宗法师、净普居士及温哥华念佛会一别至今,已有月余,但此行给我的启示与法益,至今令我回味无穷。依照善导大师净土教法,修行的本质应该是怎样的,我终于在此行之中找到了答案。 

As is the case with many Western converts to Buddhism, I havemostly been a lone practitioner, especially as a Pure Land Buddhist. Though Ilive relatively close to an urban center where a variety of Buddhist traditionsare on offer, the Pure Land tradition is, thus far, noticeably lacking. This isto be expected; most Westerners who find the Dharma are drawn to self-power practiceslike sitting meditation, or the visualizations and empowerments of the esotericschools. Indeed, I myself began my Buddhist journey as a practitioner of Zen(Ch’an), and that initial experience of a strict form and regimented schedulewould later inform my personal approach to the practice of Amitabha-recitation.Naturally, without a community of fellow Pure Land practitioners nearby toprovide context, color and living examples of Dharma practice, it was almostinevitable that I was to be cornered by my own preconceived notions.

正如其他许多西方佛教徒一样,我一直也是一个相对孤独的修行者,尤其是皈依净土宗之后。我居住的地方,距市中心较近,那里活跃着各种佛教宗派,但净土宗的念佛团体,实未曾见。这也属预料之中,因为西方人接触佛法后,大多会走入自力修行,如打坐冥想、密宗灌顶观想等等。我本人的佛法修行,就是始于习禅。由于禅修在行法上有严格的程式和朝暮定课,我便认定佛法修行必都采用这样的形式,在转入念佛之后,依然抱持这种观念不放。毋庸置疑,在缺乏同行善知识、缺乏共修环境和氛围、缺乏榜样力量的情况下,我固守着先入为主的修行观念,不可避免地陷入了无所适从的困境。 

Imagine my surprise, then, to have my expectations swept awayby Master Jingzong and my new lotus friends of the Amitabha-RecitationAssociation in Vancouver! Where I had expected to find a fixed schedule and auniform approach to reciting “Namo Amitabha Buddha,” I instead founda veritable buffet of styles and approaches. Master Jingzong alludes to thisopenness and flexibility in one of his recent teachings:

怀揣着种种期待,我来到了温哥华,与师父和莲友们的相聚,将我的所有疑虑扫荡得一干二净,可以想见我当时有多么惊奇。我原本希望此行可以帮我确定一个定课模式,找到统一的修持套路来念诵“南无阿弥陀佛”。然而目之所及,莲友们的念佛风格与方法,式样各异,不一而同。行法上的这种开放性与灵活性,恰在净宗法师近期一次讲法中有所揭示: 

“Practitioners who recite ‘Namo Amitabha Buddha’exclusively, without variation or any ego-driven effort, reach the core andessence of the entire Dharma … They can practice in this manner because theirmeritorious roots have matured.” (Excerpted from “A Pristine DharmaPath”)

“修学佛法以至于专持这一句‘南无阿弥陀佛’,念念不舍,舍一切自我用心,可知入一切佛法核心,得万法精华……今日善根成熟,故能如此。”(摘自《纯净的佛法》)

Before I elaborate on how thisteaching conformed with my observations and experience in Vancouver, let mebriefly address the one element of Amitabha-recitation practice in the Shandaolineage that could be considered “strict,” especially by newcomers:the emphasis on exclusive practice. For those new to this tradition, it might appear as ifsuch emphasis issues from a predictable sense of sectarian superiority, or isused as a mechanism to ensure group conformity to a teacher. In truth, theShandao lineage teaches that any Buddhist practice is, in principle, a PureLand practice – so long as one transfers the merit of that practice towardsrebirth in the Land of Bliss.

师父这一开示,与我在温哥华的经历完全契合,但在阐述其中道理之前,允许我简要说明一下善导大师教法对念佛的要求。这一要求或许会令新入门者感到有些“严格”,这就是强调专修念佛。对于刚刚走入净土宗的人而言,强调专修念佛,似乎易被归为门户之见,或被视为用来确保信徒对导师忠诚不二的工具。然而实际上,依善导教法,所有佛法修行,但凡行者将修行功德回向往生极乐,原则上都归于净土法门。 

The difficulty with this approach is, well, its difficulty.The merit needed to be reborn in Amitabha’s Pure Land – a true reward land ofthe Buddhas – is considerable, and to accumulate enough merit to attain rebirthin this way would take many, many lifetimes of perfect practice. If we honestlylook within, we will see that this is simply beyond the capacities of ordinary,iniquitous beings such as ourselves.

以万行回向往生,是易行道中的难行道,必须圆满具足至诚心、深心以及回向发愿心方能往生极乐净土。如果我们诚实地反观内省,则不难发现,我等罪恶凡夫欲于妄心之中生起此“三心”,实为甚难。 

How much easier it is to rely on the Fundamental Vow ofAmitabha Buddha, who promised that those “who recite my name” wouldbe reborn in the Land of Bliss by virtue of his infinite stores of karmic meritaccumulated on our behalf! Once reborn in Amitabha’s land, the full perfectionof Buddhahood is speedily attained. This was the teaching of Master Shandao,who himself was an incarnation of Amitabha Buddha: exclusive, lifelongrecitation of “Namo Amitabha Buddha” is the karma that unfailinglyassures rebirth in the Pure Land, as it perfectly accords with Amitabha’sFundamental Vow. Known in Chinese as zhengdingye, it means the principalkarma of assurance (of rebirth). This teaching is the living, beating heart ofPure Land Buddhism.

而仰靠弥陀本愿,即“称我名号”,必得往生,则易行易修,唯因法藏比丘因地修行,代为众生积功累德!众生既生彼国已,速证无上正等觉。这正是弥陀化身的善导大师开显的净土宗修持方法:一心专念弥陀名号,行住坐卧,不问时节久近,念念不舍者,是名正定之业,顺彼佛愿故。所谓正定之业,意即决定往生极乐世界的正因。此乃净土宗修持的核心精髓。 

For one who understands this,exclusive practice is not a rule to be kept, but a joyful reality to be lived. In this, there istremendous freedom and ease. No wonder my expectation of an almost Zen-likeadherence to schedules and forms was obliterated by the open and spontaneousmodes of practice I discovered in Canada. Master Jingzong’s quotation aptlydescribes this: “without variation [i.e. mixed practice] or ego-driveneffort, [they] reach the core and essence of the Dharma.”

对于通达此理的修行人,专修念佛并不是一项严规苛律,而是一条欢喜的修行之路,别有一番逍遥自在。无怪乎我因受禅修影响而形成的对固定功课及修行程式的执求,皆由在加国见证了开放、自然式的各种念佛方法而冰消瓦解。这正是净宗法师所开示的:“专持这一句‘南无阿弥陀佛’(即非杂行杂修),念念不舍,舍一切自我用心,可知入一切佛法核心,得万法精华。” 

Despite the relative fullness of our schedule,Amitabha-recitation seemed ubiquitously present at the Vancouver gathering. Iremember one woman who would at times steal away to a quiet corner, sitcross-legged in a chair and recite silently. Another man was always reciting tohimself with the aid of a digital counter. Master Jingzong himself would oftenuse a digital counter, while Master Jingye (Master Jingzong’s brother, also amonastic) was constantly turning a string of 48 beads, and would often takeearly morning walks to recite in solitude. Some people seemed to recite constantly,even in the company of others, while others were more private in theirpractice. Some recited in a quiet voice or used vajra recitation (moving the lips without sound). Some recitedquickly, others slowly.

在温哥华的行程,安排颇为紧凑,而莲友们持名念佛的身影,却随处可见。记得一位女居士时常悄然离群,盘坐在角落的椅凳上,静默念佛。还有一位男居士,总是用电子计数器计数念佛。净宗法师本人,也是计数器常不离手,而净业法师则是手捻一串48颗的念珠,时常在清晨时独自经行念佛。有些莲友,即便与他人同行,也能看出一直在念佛;有些莲友,虽在念佛却不易为人察觉。有人小声念,有人金刚念(唇动而不出声),有人念得快,有人念得慢。 

Our sessions of common practice (which usually took the formof a slow, chanted monotone to facilitate group participation) were oftenspontaneous, as if a fixed schedule would only interrupt the flow of practicethat was already flourishing naturally. Sometimes, the whole group would engagein a form of recitation practice – developed in China and based on theprinciples of Tai-chi – that was part dance and part calisthenics, accompaniedby vigorous singing of “Namo Amituofo.” (I found these sessionsparticularly enjoyable; not only did they offer a striking contrast to theusually meditative nature of Amitabha-recitation, but they left one feelinginvigorated and full of energy.) There was almost no end to the variety, with each”style” of practice affirmed as a skillful means that allowed theindividual to hold fast to Amitabha’s name.

我们集体共修时,为促进大家主动参与,采用统一音调,慢速唱诵。这种共修,通常是随意发起,仿佛硬性规定某个固定时间,就会打断业已自然涌动、相续不断的佛号。有时,大家会集体做念佛拍手操。这种拍手操是在中国发展起来的。它基于中医理论,结合了舞蹈和健身操,以充满朝气的“南无阿弥陀佛”歌唱为伴奏。它使念佛修行趣味横生,不仅迥异于修持念佛三昧的常规行法,更使行者兴致盎然、生气勃勃。念佛的方法,花样繁多,不可尽数,但每一种形式,实则无非是善巧方便,旨在使念佛人称名相续,乃至念念不舍。

In his discourse titled Gaining Buddhahood ThroughAmitabha-Recitation is the Teaching of the Buddhas, Master Huijing, thehead of the Shandao lineage, says:

慧净上人在《念佛成佛是佛教》的讲法当中提到:

“There are two kinds ofAmitabha-recitation. One is to recite in a focused manner. The other is torecite randomly, without focus. Focused recitation means that in our freemoments, we recite quietly, in a concentrated and single-minded way. To recitewhile doing something else is unfocused recitation. Such random recitation isalso without deviation, meeting the requirement of being ‘without interruptionor deviation’ [and thereby securing our rebirth].”

“念佛有两种:一种是‘专念’,一种是‘散念’。‘专念’就是没有事情的时候,静静地、专心一意地念;若是边做事情边念佛,则叫做‘散念’。散念也是没有间断,符合‘净念相继,不令间断’的要求。”(因此可以保证我们决定往生)

For me, seeing the diversity ofpractice styles and forms in Vancouver begged the question of attention andeffort. Ihave been accustomed to setting off special time away from the usual activitiesof my daily life for careful, attentive recitation. During my time inVancouver, however, “special time” seemed to flow into and merge withdaily life, and vice versa. Master Jingzong’s quotation speaks of recitingAmitabha’s name “without ego-driven effort.” As I witnessed the utternaturalness of the practitioners in Vancouver, the seamless ease with whichthey pivoted between focused and unfocused recitation, I began to question howmuch of my own practice was “ego-driven effort.”

对我而言,由于在温哥华亲眼目睹了多种多样的念佛形式,心中不免对专注与精进的问题生起疑问。长期以来,我已经养成习惯,在日常生活之外,专门留出时间来认真、专注地念佛。但在温哥华的日子里,“专门的时间”似乎与日常生活互相融入,浑然一体。净宗法师教言:“舍一切自我用心”来称念佛名,正是温哥华莲友们那种完全自然的修行状态,那种不拘泥于专念与散念的悠然自得,使我开始思量自己的修行中,有多少是属于“自我用心”。

The irony is, of course, that to ask the question is itselfego-driven effort. The Shandao lineage affirms myriad styles of practicebecause there are myriad types of practitioners. In another discourse, MasterHuijing speaks of how we all have different karmic proclivities andtemperaments; some of us can recite “Namo Amitabha Buddha” with apure, clear mind, and some of us will struggle constantly with deluded,distracting thoughts. In the same way, some will prefer focused recitation(which Master Huijing encourages us all to practice at least once a day), andsome will practice best by weaving Amitabha-recitation into the warp and weftof their daily activities. Ultimately, the manner and mode of practice isimmaterial; it only matters that one clings to the name of Amitabha.

具有讽刺意味的是,提出这个问题本身,也是一种“自我用心”。善导教法赞成多种持名方法并存,缘于众生根机千差万别。慧净上人在另一次讲法当中谈到,我们每人都有不同的业习与根性;有些人能够以清朗明净之心专注称念,有些人则不得不时时与妄想心、散乱心较量搏斗。同样,有些人喜欢专心念佛(慧净法师鼓励我们最好每天要有一段时间来专念),而有些人则需要将念佛融入到日常生活当中。最终,修行的方法和形式并不重要,重要的是我们念佛要尽力相续,不令间断。 

It was through the living exampleof my new Dharma friends in the Shandao lineage that I have been able to relaxeven more into the loving embrace of Amitabha Buddha. I continue my periods offocused recitation, but have learned to expand my practice of unfocusedrecitation as I go about my daily life. In all of this, there is a sense ofease. Even the effort and attention I bring to bear on my practice are now inthe hands of Amitabha Buddha. Sometimes, I nod off as I recite in front of myaltar in the quiet of my shrine room. Sometimes, my random, unfocusedrecitations in the midst of a hectic workday are uncommonly bright and clear.Whatever happens, I am learning to welcome it all. Without worry, withoutego-driven effort, I have reached the core and essence of the Dharma.

与新莲友们一起念佛的经历,使我能够更加放松身心,融入到阿弥陀佛的慈悲光明之中。我现在仍然坚持每天有时间用来专心念佛,但已经学会在日常生活中随时提起一句佛号。无论专念还是散念,都体会到前所未有的轻松自如。甚至我原本在行法上追求的精进与专注,现在也全体托付给了阿弥陀佛。有时,在寂静的佛堂中面对佛像专念时,我会昏沉、散乱;有时,在忙碌工作中随意散心称念,却使我内心光明清净。无论发生什么,我都学着去欣然接受。从此,放下纠结与焦虑,舍弃自我用心,我已“入一切佛法核心,得万法之精华”。

Namo Amitabha, Namo Amitabha,Namo Amitabha…

南无阿弥陀佛南无阿弥陀佛南无阿弥陀佛……

 

                                                    December18, 2016

                                                      2016年12月18日


 

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                                              弘愿寺 - 王迷糊、王拧劲 - 南无阿弥陀佛!善导大师弥陀化身,创净土宗

 

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 南无阿(nā mó ā)弥陀佛!!!【“浏阳河”的浪花】信愿弥陀救度,努力以金刚真心、乃至相续称念南无阿弥陀佛!(二十五 附件2) - 王迷糊、王拧劲 - wjfyaq的博客【“浏阳河”的浪花】信愿弥陀救度,努力以金刚真心、乃至相续称念南无阿弥陀佛!(二十五 附件2) - 王迷糊、王拧劲 - wjfyaq的博客【“浏阳河”的浪花】信愿弥陀救度,努力以金刚真心、乃至相续称念南无阿弥陀佛!(二十五 附件2) - 王迷糊、王拧劲 - wjfyaq的博客 

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